Sport and politics collided in the 1972 Olympics in Munich. There are 179,183 articles on the Simple English Wikipedia. Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets.The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Rowing, sometimes referred to as Crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. The football World Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions; the 2006 final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million and the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final attracted an estimated audience of 135 million in India alone. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli Olympic team and killed many of their men. For example, in 2010, full-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINA, as they were enhancing swimmers' performances. 19-40. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break these rules in order to gain advantage. All of the pages are free to use. Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Unlike modern basketball hoops, the bottom of the peach-basket was still there, so after a point was scored, somebody had to get the ball out of the basket with a long stick. Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making. Team members act together towards a shared objective. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it's "not that you won or lost but how you played the game", and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing... is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment. Esports (also known as electronic sports, e-sports, or eSports) is a form of sport competition using video games. [48] A video referee (commonly known as a Television Match Official or TMO) can also use replays to help decision-making in rugby (both league and union). [15] Gymnastics appears to have been popular in China's ancient past. Sport is also a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. Female players account for 39% of the total participation in US interscholastic athletics. The measurement of the result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and racewalking.. This was known as the Munich massacre. [6] The world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is the most popular spectator sport. [11] Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. One of the main ways that sports psychologists use is to help athletes meet their goals. sport definition: 1. a game, competition, or activity needing physical effort and skill that is played or done…. They need coaches to teach or train teams or individuals how to do better. [60] There is also no high-quality studies that investigate the effect of such interventions in promoting healthy behavior change in the community. "children taking part in sport"), with "sports" used to describe multiple activities (e.g. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourage youth sport as a means to increase educational participation and to fight the illegal drug trade. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby. Some games and many kinds of racing are called sports. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably. "[12], There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sports involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or SportAccord.[1]. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games, also called esports (from "electronic sports"), especially due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream sports organisations. A professional at a sport is called an athlete. The name football comes from the two words 'foot' and 'ball'. Mezi takové sporty patří např. Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time, letting people attend and follow spectator sports and participate in athletic activities. Then, too, where you have rivalry, you have rage, bitterness, wrath and grief, with all bad things which flow from them – the whole entirely out of keeping with the religion of Christ. A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Naismith wrote the basic rules and then nailed a peach basket onto a 20-foot tall pole. [49][50] In international cricket, an umpire can ask the Third umpire for a decision, and the third umpire makes the final decision. [47] In the NFL, a referee can ask for a review from the replay booth, or a head coach can issue a challenge to review the play using replays. [54][55] Hawk-Eye is also used in tennis to challenge umpiring decisions. [17] Among other sports that originated in ancient Persia are polo and jousting. [19], Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.[20][21][22]. In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.[13][14]. These fans are called spectators. Slovo sport je anglosaského původu a odvozuje se od slova disport, znamenající obveselení či rozptýlení.. Pojmem sport je dnes obvykle označována aktivita provozovaná podle určitých pravidel a zvyklostí, jejíž výsledky jsou navíc měřitelné nebo porovnatelné s jinými provozovateli téhož sportovního odvětví. Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal.Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Kulttuurivihkot 1 2009 Berliinin olympialaiset 1936 Poliittisen viattomuuden menetys Jouko Jokisalo 28–29, Gardinier, Norman E., 'The Olympic Festival' in, Winning isn't everything; it's the only thing, Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport, increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means, Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "List of Summer and Winter Olympic Sports and Events", "Judicial review of 'sport' or 'game' decision begins", "It takes a bad loser to become a good winner", "Gym class injuries up 150% between 1997 and 2007", "How Kids' Sports Became a $15 Billion Industry", "Super Bowl XLIX was the most-viewed television program in U.S. history", "Super Bowl most watched television show in US history", "Super Bowl Sunday is a Worldwide American Football Holiday", "Olympic boxing must remain amateur despite moves to turn it professional states Warren", "Olympic Wrestling Is Important for Pro Wrestling and Its Fans", "Full Body Swimsuit Now Banned for Professional Swimmers", "IFAB makes three unanimous historic decisions", "Goal-line technology set up ahead of FIFA World Cup", "Hawk-Eye confirmed as goal-line technology provider for Canada 2015", "Goal-line technology: Premier League votes in favour for 2013–14", "Bundesliga approves Hawk-Eye goal-line technology for new season", "NFL approves rule to change replay process", "Television Match Official – when can they rule", "New rules for Television Match Officials will not make game boring to watch, insist rugby chiefs", "Controversial DRS to be used in 2015 ICC World Cup", "3 Top reasons why ICC did not use 'Hotspot' as part of DRS", "Hawk-Eye makes history thanks to rare British success story at Wimbledon", "Policy Interventions Implemented Through Sporting Organisations for Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change", "Will Ohio State's Football Team Decide Who Wins the White House? For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun. Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Kenmerken. [26][27] Learn more. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first. [25], In the United States, the championship game of the NFL, the Super Bowl, has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year. Female participation in sports continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness. They can help non-professional athletes as well. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. La langue allemande admet aussi le terme « sport » et sa définition anglaise en 1831 ; la France en fait usage pour la première foi… [32] From 1971, Olympic athletes were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship,[33] and from 1986, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics,[33][34] with the exceptions of boxing,[35][36] and wrestling.[37][38]. Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting "the entire apparatus of the shows is based upon idolatry. Who we are Providing support services to British Olympic and Paralympic sports. The final decision rests with the referee. [23] Youth sport in the US is a $15 billion industry including equipment up to private coaching.[24]. The book Rules of Golf reads "The Game of Golf consists in playing a ball from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules." These risks come from running, basketball, association football, volleyball, gridiron, gymnastics, and ice hockey. Some games and many kinds of racing are called sports. By these practices and enticements the ancient dictators so successfully lulled their subjects under the yoke, that the stupefied peoples, fascinated by the pastimes and vain pleasures flashed before their eyes, learned subservience as naïvely, but not so creditably, as little children learn to read by looking at bright picture books.[71]. SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should:[1], They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics), primarily mind (such as chess or Go), predominantly motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating), primarily co-ordination (such as billiard sports), or primarily animal-supported (such as equestrian sport).[1]. Youth sport presents children with opportunities for fun, socialisation, forming peer relationships, physical fitness, and athletic scholarships. Many people play sports with their friends. Sport is commonly defined as an athletic activity that involves a degree of competition, such as netball or basketball. [72] As many Greeks travelled to see the games, this combination of religion and sport also served as a way of uniting them. [42] The technology is not compulsory,[43] but was used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil,[44] and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada,[45] as well as in the Premier League from 2013–14,[46] and the Bundesliga from 2015–16. [9] Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.[10]. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous. The ancient Olympic Games, called the Olympiad, were held in honour of the head deity, Zeus, and featured various forms of religious dedication to him and other gods. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England"). Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. It involves propelling a boat (racing shell) on water using oars.By pushing against the water with oars, rowers generate force to move the boat. Truly it is a marvellous thing that they let themselves be caught so quickly at the slightest tickling of their fancy. Each team slides eight stones, this is called an end.After an end the team with the stone closest to the centre of the house (target) scores points. For children, sports play an extremely important part in their lives by providing all round development of the child, physically, mentally and emotionally. Golf is a game played in an open field where the golfer plays his golf ball into a hole by using different types of clubs (golf instruments). Sport in England plays a prominent role in English society. [2] However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. "[74] The shows, says Tertullian, excite passions foreign to the calm temperament cultivated by the Christian: God has enjoined us to deal calmly, gently, quietly, and peacefully with the Holy Spirit, because these things are alone in keeping with the goodness of His nature, with His tenderness and sensitiveness. [7], The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Star Sports (formerly ESPN Star Sports) is a group of Indian pay television sports channels owned by Star India, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company India.Previously a part of ESPN Star Sports operations based in Singapore, Star India took over the Indian business and relaunched channels under the unified Star Sports banner in 2013.Gautam Thakar is the CEO of Star Sports. Forms of competitive activity, usually physical, As a means of controlling and subduing populations. According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital, the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion. [39] In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules that are set to control the impact of technical advantage between participants. The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.[66]. While some fans watch sports on television, others actually go to stadiums or other places where people pay to watch them in person. This page was last changed on 1 January 2021, at 14:20. 10, No. That includes children and adults who are learning English. They need coaches to teach or train teams or individuals how to do better. People engage in many kinds of sports, for example: From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants. The main group of people that sports psychologists try to help are professional athletes. American English uses "sports" for both terms. Sports are games and other competitive activities which need physical effort and skill. Despite increases in female participation during the last three decades, a gap persists in the enrolment figures between male and female players in sports-related teams. [2][30], The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sport culture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which can run into millions of dollars. Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. [75], Popularity in 2018 of major sports by size of fan base:[7]. In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, (e.g. Text taken from Strengthening the rule of law through education: a guide for policymakers, UNESCO, UNESCO. Naismith wrote the basic rules and then nailed a peach basket onto a 20-foot tall pole. It is named football because the players of the game walk and often run (on their feet) while playing, as opposed to (for example) polo where the players ride horses. En traversant la Manche, desport se mue en « sport » et évacue de son champ la notion générale de loisirs pour se concentrer sur les seules activités physiques et mentales. The inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played on a field by two teams against each other. The Simple English Wikipedia is for everyone! In Association football, goal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not. A kitűzött cél határozza meg a sport jellegét, a sportoló (vagy csapat) képességei és bátorsága mellett. According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous. All sports recognised by the IOC or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme, looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or bans being placed on participants who test positive for banned substances. In baseball, a player on one team throws a small round ball at a player on the other team, who tries to hit it with a bat.Then the player who hits the ball has to run around the field. Curling is a sport played on ice.Players slide curling stones on the ice towards a target, called the house.There are two teams with four players on each team. 2005. The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.. The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their performance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means. The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g. According to A.T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013. In early December 1891, James Naismith (1861–1939), a Canadian physical education teacher at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts, invented an indoor game called basketball.He invented the sport to keep his students from becoming bored during the winter. ... Well, how shall this be made to accord with the shows? ", "Will Redskins Rule again determine outcome of presidential election? ",, Articles with Finnish-language sources (fi), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from May 2010, All articles needing additional references, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Western Europe, East Asia, and North America, be in no way harmful to any living creature, not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such as. In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), Go and xiangqi,[4][5] and limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports.[1]. It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show certain fixtures. It also helps them to be fit and keep them healthy. Étienne de La Boétie, in his essay Discourse on Voluntary Servitude describes athletic spectacles as means for tyrants to control their subjects by distracting them. A study of US elections has shown that the result of sports events can affect the results. [51][52] Since 2008, a decision review system for players to review decisions has been introduced and used in ICC-run tournaments, and optionally in other matches. This has led to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been increasing debate about whether transgender sportspersons should be able to participate in sport events that conform with their post-transition gender identity. Some people like to watch other people play sports. Those who watch others playing sports are called fans. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels. [31], Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport. Sport was an important form of worship in Ancient Greek religion. The EIS exists to provide support services to British sports, enabling sports and athletes to realise their potential and achieve excellence. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, Vol. Een sport kan omschreven worden als een fysieke krachtmeting (bijvoorbeeld zwemmen), fysiek spel (bijvoorbeeld voetbal) of denkspel (bijvoorbeeld schaken) dat op reglementaire wijze in competitieverband of recreatief gespeeld kan worden. Participants may cheat in order to unfairly increase their chance of winning, or in order to achieve other advantages such as financial gains. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. 1, pp. [40][41], The increase in technology has also allowed many decisions in sports matches to be taken, or reviewed, off-field, with another official using instant replays to make decisions. There are many shades of judging between boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time. [2] Sports can bring positive results to one's physical health. Sport betting is in some cases severely regulated, and in some cases is central to the sport. Rioting or hooliganism by fans in particular is a problem at some national and international sporting contests. Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia. Esports often takes the form of organized, multiplayer video game competitions, particularly between professional players, individually or as teams. Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Technology plays an important part in modern sport. [18], Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. [68] Also, when Washington Redskins win their final game before an election, then the incumbent President is more likely to win, and if the Redskins lose, then the opposition candidate is more likely to win; this has become known as the Redskins Rule.[69][70]. Do not imagine that there is any bird more easily caught by decoy, nor any fish sooner fixed on the hook by wormy bait, than are all these poor fools neatly tricked into servitude by the slightest feather passed, so to speak, before their mouths. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. This ban, also known as Rule 42,[67] is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium. See also: Athletics (disambiguation) Athletics is an exclusive collection of sporting events that include competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking. gender, weight and age). Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban. English Institute of Sport Improving sporting performance through science, medicine, technology and engineering. Sport psychology means applying parts of psychology to sports and athletes. Sports can be played indoors or outdoors and by individuals or teams. Key principles of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have equal opportunity to win. The competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport being played. Artifacts and structures suggest sport in China as early as 2000 BC. Fraser-Thomas, J.L., Cote, J., Deakin, J. Sport England è il marchio dell'English Sports Council ed è un Non-departmental public body sotto il Dipartimento della Cultura. Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America;[28][29] the viewership being so great that in 2015, advertising space was reported as being sold at $4.5m for a 30-second slot. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is commonly defined as an athletic activity that involves a degree of competition, such as netball or basketball. Sport is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition,[3] and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. Until the mid-20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he played or supported Association football, or other games seen to be of British origin. [62][63] Adolf Hitler also used the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, and the 1936 Winter Olympics held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, to promote the Nazi ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race, and inferiority of the Jews and other "undesirables". Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to warfare skills. Le terme de « sport » a pour racine le mot de vieux français desport qui signifie « divertissement, plaisir physique ou de l'esprit »1. Many people play sports with their friends. Popular teams sports in England include football , field hockey , cricket , rugby union , rugby league , and netball . Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. The practice of athletic competitions has been criticised by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry, in which "human beings extol themselves, adore themselves, sacrifice themselves and reward themselves. [51][53] Depending on the host broadcaster, a number of different technologies are used during an umpire or player review, including instant replays, Hawk-Eye, Hot Spot and Real Time Snickometer. [65], When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugby union, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there.